The city of Jackson, Tennessee has been hit by an F4/EF4 tornado four separate times, in 1999, 2003, and 2 in 2008. The top 30 "outbreak days", as measured in 24-hour periods starting and ending at 7 a.m. EST (8 a.m. EDT), all involved at least 10 states. This is the longest interval without an F5 or EF5 tornado since official records began in 1950. The outbreak day centered on April 3, 1974, brought tornadoes to 13 states. “The [Southeastern states] are narrow, longitudinally speaking, so an outbreak that transverses just the state of Oklahoma would hit three to five states in the southeast,” Marsh said. In addition, it is the deadliest single tornado in United States history with 695 fatalities. Tornado outbreaks affecting the largest number of states tend to strike east of the Mississippi. Teen Survives Tornado, Confronts Media Storm", "Moore, Oklahoma Tornadoes (1890–Present)", More on tornadoes: Records, the Fujita scale, and our observations, Tornado Records from the Global Weather & Climate Extremes,, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles needing additional references from June 2016, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [citation needed], On May 31, 2013, a tornado hit rural areas near El Reno, Oklahoma. The suburban community of Harvest, Alabama, just to the northeast, also sustained major impacts from all three Tanner tornadoes, and was also hit by destructive tornadoes in 1995 and 2012. Exact death and injury counts are not possible; especially for large events and events before 1955. A widespread and deadly tornado outbreak affected the Southeastern United States on Easter Sunday and Monday, April 12–13, 2020. 1840: The earliest known intensive study of a tornadic event published in Europe, by French scientist Athanase Peltier. Prior to 1950 in the United States, only significant tornadoes are listed for the number of tornadoes in outbreaks. Only two of these states, Arkansas and Missouri, lie west of the Mississippi. 348 deaths occurred in that outbreak, of which 324 were tornado related. [3] In the history of Bangladesh at least 19 tornadoes killed more than 100 people each, almost half of the total for the rest of the world. The outbreak largely contributed to the record for most tornadoes in the month of April with 771 tornadoes, almost triple the prior record (267 in April 1974). While there is no formal definition, a tornado outbreak is often defined as a sequence of at least six tornadoes separated by less than six hours. Most tornado outbreaks in North America occur in the spring, but there is a secondary peak of tornado activity in the fall which is less consistent but can include exceptionally large and/or intense outbreaks. The 2011 Super Outbreak was the largest tornado outbreak spawned by a single weather system in recorded history; it produced 360 tornadoes from April 25–28, with 216 of those in a single 24-hour period on April 27 from midnight to midnight CDT, fifteen of which were violent EF4–EF5 tornadoes. Other weak tornadoes have approached or exceeded this speed, but this is the fastest forward movement observed in a major tornado. [26], What at one time was thought to be the record holder for the longest tornado path is now thought to be the longest tornado family, with a track of at least 293 miles (472 km) on May 26, 1917 from the Missouri border across Illinois into Indiana. It's the only state affected by Sunday's outbreak that lies within the Great Plains corridor considered the heart of Tornado Alley. ), “It doesn't surprise me,” Marsh said, “but it just goes to show how ‘big’ those days were.”. [10][11], Similar to fatalities, damage (and observations) of a tornado are a coincidence of what character of tornado interacts with certain characteristics of built up areas. [31] In less than a minute, the pressure dropped to 850 millibars (25.10 inHg), which are the greatest pressure decline and the lowest pressure ever recorded at the Earth's surface when adjusted to sea level. Two tornadoes from the outbreak have been confirmed at EF4 strength, both in Mississippi, and at least 11 others reached EF3 strength. [20] These are also the highest wind speeds observed on Earth. [12], During the F5 1999 Bridge Creek–Moore tornado on May 3, 1999 in the southern Oklahoma City metro area, a Doppler on Wheels situated near the tornado measured winds of 302 ± 22 mph (486 ± 35 km/h) momentarily in a small area inside the funnel approximately 100 m (330 ft) above ground level. [24], The longest-known track for a single tornado is the Tri-State Tornado with a path length of 151 to 235 mi (243 to 378 km).

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